ANALYSIS OF THE LEVELS OF UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

The aim of this paper is to analyze the trends of under-five mortality in Kaduna State. A total of 415 copies of semi structured questionnaire were administered using purposive sampling technique, of which 386 were found useful for analysis. Data were analyzed through percentages and logistic regression was used to determine the relative contribution of each factor responsible for the mortality. The results show that 66.3% of the respondents are between the ages of 20 and 34 years, 36.8% are Hausa/Fulani, 28.8% have attended Secondary school, and most of the respondents (21.8%) have monthly income between ₦30,001-₦40,000. The level of the mortality in Kaduna state has remained high since the past 10 years with an estimated rate of 163/1,000 live births. Only six factors were significantly associated with under-5 mortality. These were distance to health facility, age at first marriage, age of mothers, current marital status, level of education, and length of breast feeding. Logistic regression revealed that distance from the health facility had the most significant correlation (0.379), followed by age at first marriage (0.138), age of mother (0.118), marital status (0.064), level of education (0.064) and length of breast feeding contribute (0.054). It is therefore recommended that programme interventions need to focus on mothers, particularly at the low socioeconomic level. That is, adolescent girls should be encouraged to go to school to at least secondary level. This will increase age at first birth and reduce child death at first birth order. Health services should be brought nearer to the communities so that mothers can have access to both during pregnancy and after in order to reduce under-five mortality.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

Farmers responses on the challenges of climate change in Kaduna state, Nigeria

Abstract: 

The study focused on weather-related events such as prolonged dry seasons, floods, storms, mud slides, extreme rainfall, and delayed/early rains in the area of study. This has left most of the farmers’ food insecure and their livelihoods threatened. A total of 162 farmer households distributed in Kaduna State were interviewed to assess how farmers perceive the effects of changes and challenges of climatic change variables, and how they have adjusted their farming practices to cope with the changes in climate. Gender of the household head and size of land owned significantly affected adaptation. About 90% of households interviewed had observed a change in the climate in the last 10 years. Drought and floods had the highest impact on crop production across agro-ecological zones. The perceived effects of climate variations were water scarcity, poor crop yield, delay in harvesting, increased cost of fertilizer, outbreak of pest and disease. Chi square result showed that there is a strong relationship between coping strategies and perceive climate change. The study further showed that farmers’ perception of climate change significantly influenced the way they responded to variations in climate. The main challenges include lack of information on adaptation methods and financial constraints. The smallholder farmer households studied have a high awareness of changes in rainfall and temperature and have taken measures to cope with effects of a changing climate. The study therefore recommend the immediate adoption of irrigation and mulching as mitigating measures to cope with the phenomenon instead of the complete reliance on rain-fed agriculture in the study area.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

Diversity and Foraging Guilds: Focus on Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands Avifaunal Community

Abstract: 

Wetlands being a complex ecosystem are well-known for their rich bird species by serving as shelter and foraging ground. However, information on the avian species foraging guild of the Hadejia-Nguru Wetland is unknown and diversity is relatively understood. Using point count method, a total of 14 wetland sites were surveyed from October to December, 2015. A total of 99 census points spaced 400 m apart with 100 m radius were used to surveyed birdsfrom 14 wetland sites. A total of 148 bird species belonging to 23 orders and 50 families were recorded. Among these, 94 (64.19%) were resident, 20 (13.51%) intra-African migrants, and 34 (22.30%) Palearctic winters. Results showed that Muzza wetland was the most diverse (H'= 3.13), followed by Barrack (2.94) and Hadejia Barrage (2.83), whereas Kandamau was the least diverse (1.04), followed by Kwasabat (1.11) and Dumbari (1.33). On the other hand, avian assemblages in Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands were composed of more insectivorous 49.32%, granivorous 14.86%, frugivorous 13.53%, carnivorous 13.51%, piscivorous 7.43%, and fewer vegetarians 1.35%. The diverse array of bird species recorded in this study highlights the conservation importance of Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to understand the relationship between birds and habitat structure, competition and predation among the local bird assemblage to guide future conservation. It is recommended that the wetland management increase public awareness on the importance of birds conservation in the wetland.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

The Rijndeal Cipher (A Review

Abstract: 

Since its adoption by the National Institute of Standards and technology, the Rijdeal cipher has become a standard in public and private key encryption in the internet. Recent researches have however exposed marginal but still important flaws in the rijdeal algorithm. This research reviews the Rijndeal cipher and some of the more significant attacks that have successfully broken the cipher. But despite these signiicant lapses, after comparison with other algorithims such as the DES and triple DES (3DES), the Rijdeal cipher was found to have superseded them in terms of security ans efficiency. As part of the research, the Rijndeal cipher was fully implemented using Matlab and the code shared publicly on GITHUB

ISSN: 
2476-8316

Overview and Challenges in Modern Wireless LAN Security

Abstract: 

Wireless networks especially the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) is a means of providing an inexpensive and easy way in sharing common digital resources such as a single Internet connection among several computers. Using a wireless network to transfer files makes digital life faster and eliminates wired connections. Hence, WLAN are playing a major role in the information technology revolution. The increasing need for WLAN technology has led to a closer examination of its security vulnerability, hence, the need for an accurate assessment of the reality of the current state of the security of wireless 802.11-based environments. By reviewing WLAN technology literatures, this paper aims to overview the WLAN structure, its challenges and point out its shortcomings.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

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