Assessment of Naturally occurring Radioactive Materials (Norm) Along Jakara Waste Water Canal, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria

Abstract: 

This study is an assessment of the radioactivity level along the Jakara waste water canal. Five soil samples from different points along the canal were analysed using the Gamma Spectrometry with Sodium Iodide detector (Model Name: Canberra, Model Number: 727, Serial Number: 11914167). The results obtained for the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) show that the activity concentration for 40K ranges from 242.61 Bq/Kg to 548.67 Bq/Kg and its calculated average value being 347.71 Bq/Kg. Values for 226Ra activity concentration ranges from 18.31 Bq/Kg to 38.58 Bq/Kg and having an average value of 24.47 Bq/Kg, while that of 232Th ranges from 34.77 Bq/Kg to 84.95 Bq/Kg with an average value of 47.85 Bq/Kg. Hence, this NORM result reveals that the activity concentration of 40K and 232Th near the abattoir, as well as 226Ra near Jakara police station are all higher than the world wide average. The calculated absorbed dose rate, ranging from77.23 nGyh-1 to 141 nGyh-1, at all the sample locations as well as the gamma index at the abattoir were found to be higher than the acceptable limit for the general public whereas the calculated annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, the external and internal hazard indices, and also the alpha indices at all the sample sites plus the gamma indices at the rest locations apart from the abattoir, are all found to be lower in values than the specified limit.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

An Assessment on Concentration Level of Heavy Metals in Some Selected Soils of Sule –Tankarkar Local Government Area of Jigawa State North-Western Nigeria

Abstract: 

The work tries to assess the concentration of heavy metals in soil of Sule-Tankarkar Local Government Area of which ten sample sites were selected based on the reconnaissance survey to the study area. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ASS Buck Scientific VGP 210 Model) was used to analyze the soil samples collected from the depth of 0 to 20 cm each. The result revealed that the mean value for all the nutrients in the sampled soil sites are; Ca = 0.1350 meg/100g; Cd = 2.839 ppm; Co = 0.538 ppm; Cr = 0.62 ppm; Cu= 1.519 ppm; Fe = 0.518ppm; K = 0.0301meg/100g; Mg = 0.01meg/100g; Mn = 3.09ppm; Na = 0.0026 meg/100g; Ni = 2.86ppm; Pb = 0.473ppm; and Zn = 0.522ppm. This gives an indication that some of the elements fell within the ranged of permissible level in the soil as required by WHO (Ogundele et al., 2015), while others are either below or above the permissible limits. This provides an avenue for understanding the deficiencies and excesses of the elements in the soils for appropriate agricultural measures, high potential crop yield, uphold food security and land tenure problems.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

CATCHMENT LOCATIONS OF BUYERS FOR AGRICULTURAL FOOD-PRODUCT WHOLESALE MARKETS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

The study examined the catchment locations from where buyers patronized wholesale markets for agricultural food products of Kano Metropolis. Focus Group Discussion was used to collect data on catchment locations of buyers. The data were qualitatively analyzed through collation and arrangement of the FGD result. The catchment locations of the buyers were mapped out with the aid of ARCGIS software. Schedule Interview with buyers was used to establish the reasons for patronizing the markets. Descriptive statistics, particularly percentages, were used to analyze the data related to the reasons. The significant difference among buyers regarding reasons for purchase of products was determined with use of chi square. The study revealed differences in the catchments of the three markets both internally (within Nigeria) and externally (outside the country). Dawanau market had wider catchment; buyers came from far more distant places up to Libya in North Africa. Yankaba market had the least catchments, with buyers coming from Niger Republic. Internally, however, Yankaba market had wider catchment, with buyers coming from Middle-belt, Western and Eastern Nigeria. For Yanlemo, the patronage was more from the northern part of the country. The buyers patronized due proximity, cheapness, variety, availability and quality. Yankaba was the most diverse with all qualities featuring either alone or in a combination. Two-thirds patronized Dawanau due to cheapness/variety/quality. Cheapness/variety attracted two-thirds to Yanlemo market. The study recommended for further studies on boundary delineation, demographics, customer purchase data, competitor locations and temporal fluctuation of the catchment areas.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

ANALYSIS OF THE LEVELS OF UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

The aim of this paper is to analyze the trends of under-five mortality in Kaduna State. A total of 415 copies of semi structured questionnaire were administered using purposive sampling technique, of which 386 were found useful for analysis. Data were analyzed through percentages and logistic regression was used to determine the relative contribution of each factor responsible for the mortality. The results show that 66.3% of the respondents are between the ages of 20 and 34 years, 36.8% are Hausa/Fulani, 28.8% have attended Secondary school, and most of the respondents (21.8%) have monthly income between ₦30,001-₦40,000. The level of the mortality in Kaduna state has remained high since the past 10 years with an estimated rate of 163/1,000 live births. Only six factors were significantly associated with under-5 mortality. These were distance to health facility, age at first marriage, age of mothers, current marital status, level of education, and length of breast feeding. Logistic regression revealed that distance from the health facility had the most significant correlation (0.379), followed by age at first marriage (0.138), age of mother (0.118), marital status (0.064), level of education (0.064) and length of breast feeding contribute (0.054). It is therefore recommended that programme interventions need to focus on mothers, particularly at the low socioeconomic level. That is, adolescent girls should be encouraged to go to school to at least secondary level. This will increase age at first birth and reduce child death at first birth order. Health services should be brought nearer to the communities so that mothers can have access to both during pregnancy and after in order to reduce under-five mortality.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

Farmers responses on the challenges of climate change in Kaduna state, Nigeria

Abstract: 

The study focused on weather-related events such as prolonged dry seasons, floods, storms, mud slides, extreme rainfall, and delayed/early rains in the area of study. This has left most of the farmers’ food insecure and their livelihoods threatened. A total of 162 farmer households distributed in Kaduna State were interviewed to assess how farmers perceive the effects of changes and challenges of climatic change variables, and how they have adjusted their farming practices to cope with the changes in climate. Gender of the household head and size of land owned significantly affected adaptation. About 90% of households interviewed had observed a change in the climate in the last 10 years. Drought and floods had the highest impact on crop production across agro-ecological zones. The perceived effects of climate variations were water scarcity, poor crop yield, delay in harvesting, increased cost of fertilizer, outbreak of pest and disease. Chi square result showed that there is a strong relationship between coping strategies and perceive climate change. The study further showed that farmers’ perception of climate change significantly influenced the way they responded to variations in climate. The main challenges include lack of information on adaptation methods and financial constraints. The smallholder farmer households studied have a high awareness of changes in rainfall and temperature and have taken measures to cope with effects of a changing climate. The study therefore recommend the immediate adoption of irrigation and mulching as mitigating measures to cope with the phenomenon instead of the complete reliance on rain-fed agriculture in the study area.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

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