ANALYSIS OF A DISSIMILAR COLD STANDBY SYSTEM WITH THREE MODES USING KOLMOGOROV FORWARD EQUATIONS METHOD

Author: 
Bala Naziru Idris, Mansur Idi, Suleiman K and Ubah Ahmad Ali

This paper studied the reliability characteristics of a two-dissimilar unit cold standby
system with three modes (normal, partial failure and total failure) by using kolmogorov
forward equation method, in which explicit expressions of the mean time to system
failure (MTSF ), steady state availability ( ) T A ¥ , the busy period ( ) P B ¥ and profit
function ( ) F P ¥ are derived. The failure rate and repair time are assumed to have
exponential distribution. It was found that (MTSF ), ( ) T A ¥ and ( ) F P ¥ decreases with

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AMONG FEMALE PATIENTSATTENDING BARNIN-KUDU GENERAL HOSPITAL, JIGAWA, NIGERIA

Author: 
Ahmad, M.M,Yahaya, G, Shu’aibu, I and Abdullahi, I. I

Urinary tract infection is common among females of all ages. Prevalence and incidence is
higher in women than in men, which is likely the result of several clinical factors
including anatomic differences, hormonal effects, and behavioral patterns. In this study,
a total of 150 High Vaginal Swab (HVS) samples were collected from female patients
using sterile cotton swab sticks and immediately transported to laboratory for further
analysis.It was observed that 53 (35.3%) of the 150 female patients sampled were

ISOLATION and ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN of Candida albicans ISOLATED from ENDOCERVICAL and HIGH VAGINAL SWABS of PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING STATE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL GOMBE, NIGERIA.

Author: 
Shu’aibu I,Ahmad M.M., Maigari F.U., Mu’inat A.A, and Abdullahi, I. I

Candida albicans is the common cause of both oral and vaginal candidiasis in humans.
This candidiasis leads to a wide range of physical, psychological and even physiological
problems in humans particularly pregnant women.Samples of endocervical and high
vaginal swab were collected from 200 women attending Gombe specialist hospital Gombe
and inoculated on Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) incorporated with Chloramphenicol to
get rid of the unwanted bacterial contaminants. Gram staining technique and Germ tube

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE HADEJIA-NGURU WETLANDS: A REVIEW

Author: 
Abubakar, M.M., Kutama, A.S., Sulaiman, I.M. and Ringim, A.S.

This review highlights the manifestation of climate change in the Hadejia-Nguru
wetlands. Warming of the earth surface is definitely taking place. And that most of the
increase in global temperature is caused by greenhouse gases emitted as a result of
human activities. The Hadejia-Nguru wetland ecosystem comprises permanent lakes and
seasonally flooded pools connected by a network of channels. The wetland is an
important site for biodiversity. The minimum essential characteristics of a wetland are

A SURVEY OF FIRST-ORDER PROOF METHODS

Author: 
Ali Maianguwa Shuaibu

This work explored how to develop valid arguments and valid mathematical proofs. It has
also shown that a formal proof is written in symbolic language instead of natural
language; it is based simply on symbol manipulation (no need of thinking, just apply the
rules). In other words, a formal proof uses a fixed set of rules specifying what counts as
an acceptable step. An informal proof of the sort used by mathematicians is every bit as
rigorous as a formal proof. However, it is stated in English and is usually more freewheeling,

ENHANCED UNIVERSITY COURSE TIMETABLING SYSTEM USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

Author: 
Muhammad Abubakar Alhassan, Aliyu Isah Aliyu, Jibrin Muhammad Adam, Farouk Lawan Gambo, Isah Inuwa Dutse

Course timetabling is a non-polynomial (NP-problem) that affects educational providers.
Many educational institutions are working very hard to develop error-free course
timetable that will be suitable to both students and academic staffs. But on the other
hand, developing a good course timetable is very challenging. There are so many issues
that affect timetabling be it either examination or course timetable but, our study
focused only on course timetabling. Example of such issues are; venue clashing between

RADIOMETRIC ASSAY OF OUTDOOR GAMMA DOSE RATE LEVEL IN KATSINA METROPOLIS, KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

Author: 
Bashir G. Muhammad,Tijjani S. Bichi and Dahiru G. Diso

The presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the environment
makes background radiation inevitably present everywhere in the environment. Their
contribution gives the largest contribution to the total radiation dose received by
humans. A survey was therefore carried out to determine baseline outdoor gamma dose
rate in Katsina metropolis, Northern Nigeria. RDS-120 Universal Survey Meters capable of
measuring gamma dose rate of 0.05μSv/h to 10Sv/h dose were used. The meters were

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MODERN INTEL MICROPROCESSORS

Author: 
Kiyawa, A.I., Usman, M.T. and Abdullahi, Z.H.

With so many desktop processors in the market today, the user is faced with the
challenge of choosing the processor which matches his requirements without the need to
spend a lot on unneeded capabilities. This paper aims at aiding buyers to make the right
choice in Intel desktop processors. It first presents some important features of the
processor for the user’s understanding. Using backward market research method,
secondary data was obtained from Intel’s official website. With this data, analysis of the

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF n-Cu2O THIN FILMS PRODUCED BY BOILING AND IMMERSION TECHNIQUES

Author: 
I. I. Ibrahim I M. Musa and N.Yunusa

The study introduces the techniques of Electroless Chemical Deposition Method of
Depositing n -Cu2O using the boiling and immersion techniques. Comparative studies of
the deposition phases and the physical properties of both approaches was carried out
using the X- ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) of the
2 n -Cu O deposited. The investigation identifies the different micrographs from the SEM
and the different spectra from the XRD of the 2 n -Cu O deposited under the same copper

ANALYSING SECURITY REQUIREMENTS WITH MISUSE CASES AND ANSWER SET PROGRAMMING

Author: 
Gideon Dadik Bibuand Nobukazu Yoshioka

The need for early consideration of security during system design and development cannot
be over-emphasized, since this allows security features to be properly integrated into the
system rather than added as patches later on. A necessary pre-requisite is the elicitation
and analysis of the security requirements prior to system design. Existing methods for the
security requirements phase, such as attack trees and misuse case analysis, use manual
means for analysis, with which it is difficult to validate and analyse system properties

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