Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol2. Issue2

A REVIEW OF NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY-THEIR DISTRIBUTION, EFFECTS AND USAGE TO MAN

Abstract: 

Natural products are naturally occurring compounds that are end products of primary metabolites; often they are unique compounds for particular organisms. They are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. The most important of these phytochemicals (secondary metabolites) are alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavanoids, terpenoid and cardiac glycosides. Their important physiological effects on humans and other animals are reviewed.
Keywords: Natural products, uses, phytochemicals, man and chemistry.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF URBANISATION ON URBAN ZARIA

Abstract: 

It is in cities that the negative impact of warming climate will be felt most strongly. The comfort and wellbeing of urban population will become increasingly compromised under future scenarios for climate change and urbanization. Twenty years data for Temperature, Relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed were used to study the degree of climate change in Zaria. The study attempts to evaluate the impact of urbanization of Zaria on its climate. Regression analysis was used to determine the direction and strength of the climate. From the study, it was observed that as population (which is referred to as the growth variable in the study) increases, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and rainfall decreases. The magnitude of these variations was strong and hence supported theories in urban climates. Consequently, a number of solutions towards tackling the problems have been prescribed

ISSN: 
2476-8316

AN ASSESSMENT OF WIDOWHOOD AND ORPHANCY IN THE CONTEMPORARY HAUSA CULTURE IN KANO METROPOLIS, KANO NIGERIA

Abstract: 

This paper assesses the treatment of the family of deceases by the society and how it impacted on the wellbeing of the affected persons. It is a cross sectional survey research utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data through the identification of income, expenses, choices and decision in response to their predicaments. Structured interview and questionnaire are designed to capture the responses from widows, orphans and their neighbours/relative. Snowballing is adopted while sampling the respondents especially the people who are related to the orphans and widows. Simple descriptive statistics are used in describing the tally of some observed variables. Chi-square test was used to test the observed behaviors between widows and orphans. The findings revealed an amazing scenario where 80% of the widow lamented bitter experiences after the death of their husbands. Majority of the orphans suffers various problems in their upbringing including feeding and other necessities of life like clothes, shelter and schooling. Economic hardship, poverty and westernization change Hausa-polygamous culture which in turn made the widows at disadvantage of getting another husbands. The study discovered that female orphanage is more debilitating than their males’ counterpart. Majority are push into Hawking and other low-level livelihood options that affect their honour and decency at times injuring their health womanhood. The paper recommend with emphases that Government should revamp the welfare services to take care of widows and orphans through monthly allowances, free education and health care in order to protect and prevent them from evil-minds whom in the name of assisting, end of jeopardizing their future

ISSN: 
2476-8316

An Assessment on Concentration Level of Heavy Metals in Some Selected Soils of Sule –Tankarkar Local Government Area of Jigawa State North-Western Nigeria

Abstract: 

The work tries to assess the concentration of heavy metals in soil of Sule-Tankarkar Local Government Area of which ten sample sites were selected based on the reconnaissance survey to the study area. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ASS Buck Scientific VGP 210 Model) was used to analyze the soil samples collected from the depth of 0 to 20 cm each. The result revealed that the mean value for all the nutrients in the sampled soil sites are; Ca = 0.1350 meg/100g; Cd = 2.839 ppm; Co = 0.538 ppm; Cr = 0.62 ppm; Cu= 1.519 ppm; Fe = 0.518ppm; K = 0.0301meg/100g; Mg = 0.01meg/100g; Mn = 3.09ppm; Na = 0.0026 meg/100g; Ni = 2.86ppm; Pb = 0.473ppm; and Zn = 0.522ppm. This gives an indication that some of the elements fell within the ranged of permissible level in the soil as required by WHO (Ogundele et al., 2015), while others are either below or above the permissible limits. This provides an avenue for understanding the deficiencies and excesses of the elements in the soils for appropriate agricultural measures, high potential crop yield, uphold food security and land tenure problems.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

ANALYSIS OF THE LEVELS OF UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

The aim of this paper is to analyze the trends of under-five mortality in Kaduna State. A total of 415 copies of semi structured questionnaire were administered using purposive sampling technique, of which 386 were found useful for analysis. Data were analyzed through percentages and logistic regression was used to determine the relative contribution of each factor responsible for the mortality. The results show that 66.3% of the respondents are between the ages of 20 and 34 years, 36.8% are Hausa/Fulani, 28.8% have attended Secondary school, and most of the respondents (21.8%) have monthly income between ₦30,001-₦40,000. The level of the mortality in Kaduna state has remained high since the past 10 years with an estimated rate of 163/1,000 live births. Only six factors were significantly associated with under-5 mortality. These were distance to health facility, age at first marriage, age of mothers, current marital status, level of education, and length of breast feeding. Logistic regression revealed that distance from the health facility had the most significant correlation (0.379), followed by age at first marriage (0.138), age of mother (0.118), marital status (0.064), level of education (0.064) and length of breast feeding contribute (0.054). It is therefore recommended that programme interventions need to focus on mothers, particularly at the low socioeconomic level. That is, adolescent girls should be encouraged to go to school to at least secondary level. This will increase age at first birth and reduce child death at first birth order. Health services should be brought nearer to the communities so that mothers can have access to both during pregnancy and after in order to reduce under-five mortality.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

ANALYSIS OF TWO TECHNOLOGY TOOLS THAT CAN BE USED TO SUPPORT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A KNOWLEDGE STRATEGY IN AN ORGANIZATION USING SWOT ANALYSIS TOOLS

Abstract: 

As the technologies are becoming more increasingly important in the modern economy and present a powerful combination for the future of Knowledge Management, Interdependence between the technology and the KM leads to development of many frameworks that are used to support the implementation of a KM strategy in an Organization. KM technology tools such as Collaborative tools, with ability to provide Electronic Meeting systems, Video-conferencing, Groupware, Executive Information system, Internet, intranet, and extranet were discussed in this research. KM emanated as a result of the increase in the organizational changes experienced recently. Today, most organizations realized there is an exigent need to implement KM strategy. SWOT Analysis today’s play significant role in generating strategic internal strength, weakness of the organization, and the external threat and opportunity as well. It is been considered as the simple framework to strategically analyze the organizational situation. In this research work, two technology tools where choose and analyzed using SWOT analysis tool.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

APPLICATION OF GEO-SPATIAL MAPPING IN GOOD GOVERNANCE IN URBAN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

This paper aimed at investigating the role of geospatial mapping techniques in good governance in the study area. Geospatial information mapping is an indispensable tool for government, institutions and organizations which are involved in the policies and decision making at local, national and international levels. Field survey, topographical map, satellite images and oral interview were some of the materials and methods used for the study. The results of the study revealed that the study area is blessed with a range of material and human resources such as water resources, rocks, vegetation, grassland, livestock, grazing land and farm land. The result further showed that geo-information mapping is second to none as a baseline data for good governance as it provides information for policy makers and gives an insight into the potentials for sustainable development. In view of the findings of this study, access to geo-spatial data is highly recommended as it is very vital for many of the governance issues related to the environmental and human resources development

ISSN: 
2476-8316

Assessment of Naturally occurring Radioactive Materials (Norm) Along Jakara Waste Water Canal, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria

Abstract: 

This study is an assessment of the radioactivity level along the Jakara waste water canal. Five soil samples from different points along the canal were analysed using the Gamma Spectrometry with Sodium Iodide detector (Model Name: Canberra, Model Number: 727, Serial Number: 11914167). The results obtained for the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) show that the activity concentration for 40K ranges from 242.61 Bq/Kg to 548.67 Bq/Kg and its calculated average value being 347.71 Bq/Kg. Values for 226Ra activity concentration ranges from 18.31 Bq/Kg to 38.58 Bq/Kg and having an average value of 24.47 Bq/Kg, while that of 232Th ranges from 34.77 Bq/Kg to 84.95 Bq/Kg with an average value of 47.85 Bq/Kg. Hence, this NORM result reveals that the activity concentration of 40K and 232Th near the abattoir, as well as 226Ra near Jakara police station are all higher than the world wide average. The calculated absorbed dose rate, ranging from77.23 nGyh-1 to 141 nGyh-1, at all the sample locations as well as the gamma index at the abattoir were found to be higher than the acceptable limit for the general public whereas the calculated annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, the external and internal hazard indices, and also the alpha indices at all the sample sites plus the gamma indices at the rest locations apart from the abattoir, are all found to be lower in values than the specified limit.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

CATCHMENT LOCATIONS OF BUYERS FOR AGRICULTURAL FOOD-PRODUCT WHOLESALE MARKETS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

The study examined the catchment locations from where buyers patronized wholesale markets for agricultural food products of Kano Metropolis. Focus Group Discussion was used to collect data on catchment locations of buyers. The data were qualitatively analyzed through collation and arrangement of the FGD result. The catchment locations of the buyers were mapped out with the aid of ARCGIS software. Schedule Interview with buyers was used to establish the reasons for patronizing the markets. Descriptive statistics, particularly percentages, were used to analyze the data related to the reasons. The significant difference among buyers regarding reasons for purchase of products was determined with use of chi square. The study revealed differences in the catchments of the three markets both internally (within Nigeria) and externally (outside the country). Dawanau market had wider catchment; buyers came from far more distant places up to Libya in North Africa. Yankaba market had the least catchments, with buyers coming from Niger Republic. Internally, however, Yankaba market had wider catchment, with buyers coming from Middle-belt, Western and Eastern Nigeria. For Yanlemo, the patronage was more from the northern part of the country. The buyers patronized due proximity, cheapness, variety, availability and quality. Yankaba was the most diverse with all qualities featuring either alone or in a combination. Two-thirds patronized Dawanau due to cheapness/variety/quality. Cheapness/variety attracted two-thirds to Yanlemo market. The study recommended for further studies on boundary delineation, demographics, customer purchase data, competitor locations and temporal fluctuation of the catchment areas.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

Cluster Based File System (A Review)

Abstract: 

With a growth in the size of internet users and other big-data-reliant applications, the need for fault tolerant file systems that can provide concurrent and redundant access to file is growing.The Access, location, concurrency and failure transparency provide by cluster based file systems has inspired many big data users like Google and Oracle to adopt cluster based file systems. The heterogeneity and transparency provided by such systems also dampens expansion and managerial costs,however the management of such systems is not tribal.
Cluster based file systems often require complex operations to ensure synchronicity and concurrency control within the cluster.The immense distributed management of cluster also creates a performance overhead especially when involving remote requests. cluster based systems are thus challenged to provide the seemingly redundant and resilient operation rooted in their architectures while not compromising on performance,security and other functionality metrics.Thus review will focus on the strategies adopted in the optional deployment of cluster based file systems and the schemes used in some of them to overcome some of the challenges faced by cluster based systems. The review will focus on file clustered file clustered file systems (Hadoop file systems, lustre, Gluster file systems,Caph, Moose file system and Quick file systems). These systems were selected based on their recentness. Additionally,servers like Hadoop are being used by industry leaders like Yahoo and Facebook and hence more prone to rigorous standardization.The survey will review them based on their Architectures, Naming method, Replication mechanism and fault management and detection mechanism.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

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Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol2. Issue1

A COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY ALGORITHMS

Author: 
A. K Dodo, B.Y Baha and U.A. Bukar

Information can be shared between two or more parties by hiding secret message(s)
under an image, this art is known as Steganography. This eases communication without
been traced by anyone not associated with the message. It is hard or even impossible to
know that there is anything embedded in the image. Rumours are already there that
terrorist are using image steganography to hide secret plans between themselves, this
prompted the urgency in detecting images that contain steganography so that this

A COMPETITIVE BUSINESS IS/IT STRATEGY: SURVEY ON ADAPTION OF IS/IT STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

Author: 
Salim Ahmad,Farouk Lawan Gambo, Haruna Musa,Isma’il Muhammad Musa, and Yusuf Magaji

Today, Information system technology transforms the way enterprises go about the
business processes. Large business enterprises have completely changed the way a
business is carried out. Large business enterprises adapt various ways in which IS/IT
strategy influences their business, which hinders effectiveness in their business like:
operational excellence, new products, services, and business models, customer and
supplier intimacy, improved decision making, competitive advantage and business

A SURVEY OF FIRST-ORDER PROOF METHODS

Author: 
Ali Maianguwa Shuaibu

This work explored how to develop valid arguments and valid mathematical proofs. It has
also shown that a formal proof is written in symbolic language instead of natural
language; it is based simply on symbol manipulation (no need of thinking, just apply the
rules). In other words, a formal proof uses a fixed set of rules specifying what counts as
an acceptable step. An informal proof of the sort used by mathematicians is every bit as
rigorous as a formal proof. However, it is stated in English and is usually more freewheeling,

ANALYSING SECURITY REQUIREMENTS WITH MISUSE CASES AND ANSWER SET PROGRAMMING

Author: 
Gideon Dadik Bibuand Nobukazu Yoshioka

The need for early consideration of security during system design and development cannot
be over-emphasized, since this allows security features to be properly integrated into the
system rather than added as patches later on. A necessary pre-requisite is the elicitation
and analysis of the security requirements prior to system design. Existing methods for the
security requirements phase, such as attack trees and misuse case analysis, use manual
means for analysis, with which it is difficult to validate and analyse system properties

ANALYSIS OF A DISSIMILAR COLD STANDBY SYSTEM WITH THREE MODES USING KOLMOGOROV FORWARD EQUATIONS METHOD

Author: 
Bala Naziru Idris, Mansur Idi, Suleiman K and Ubah Ahmad Ali

This paper studied the reliability characteristics of a two-dissimilar unit cold standby
system with three modes (normal, partial failure and total failure) by using kolmogorov
forward equation method, in which explicit expressions of the mean time to system
failure (MTSF ), steady state availability ( ) T A ¥ , the busy period ( ) P B ¥ and profit
function ( ) F P ¥ are derived. The failure rate and repair time are assumed to have
exponential distribution. It was found that (MTSF ), ( ) T A ¥ and ( ) F P ¥ decreases with

ANALYSIS OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS AND MINERALS FOUND IN AQUEOUS STEM BARK EXTRACT OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK

Author: 
Labaran IbrahimLukman O. Afolabi Adam A. Adam Jamil D. Usman Umar Muhammad

The analysis of some phytochemicals and minerals were performed using aqueous stem
bark extract of Albizia lebbeck obtained from Gano town of Wudil Local Government
Area, Kano-Nigeria. The research work was undertaken to identify and quantify
phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, alkaloids; and minerals
such as magnesium, iron, calcium, zinc and potassium found in the aqueous stem bark
extract of the plant. The result of the phytochemical screening indicated that the stem

ASSESEMENT OF WERNER DECONVOLUTION METHOD IN THE ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL FAULT SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF THE KALANGAI FAULT SYSTEM NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Author: 
Abubakar Y.I., Dewu B.B.M. and Lawal K.M.

Werner deconvolution analysis of four ground and six aero magnetic profiles across the
Kalangai fault within the Kushaka schist belt northwestern Nigeria was carried out in
order to assess the usefulness of the method in analyzing profile magnetic data. The
length of the ground profiles varies from 4 Km to 8 Km, while that of the aeromagnetic
profiles from 40 Km to 80 Km. All the profiles were laid perpendicular to the strike
direction of the fault. The ground magnetic profile data were obtained using a Scintrex

CITY GUIDE FOR ANDROID

Author: 
Aliyu Uthman Bello, Bello Usman, John Ubong

The concept of context and context awareness has resulted in many mobile and
ubiquitous computing applications being developed. Introduction of Smart phones, led to
several applications being developed to meet different user requirements, part of which
is the tourism industry. Many platforms were deployed, in developing tourist
applications, but only a few were based on Android, and tailored towards users' needs.
This research intends to develop an Android tour guide application that is tailored

CLASSIFYING URBAN CLIMATE FIELD SITES BY LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES OF KADUNA METROPOLIS NIGERIA

Author: 
S .U .Usmanb,I.A. Abdulhameda ,M.Ibrahima,E. O .Iguisib, I.M.Azarea and O. F .Atic

This study assessed the local climate zones (LCZ) in Kaduna metropolis. It involved the
categorization of the land use land cover using local climate zone scheme, as well as the
determination of the canyon geometry of the study sites within the study area. 19 study
sites were selected within and outside the metropolis Deploying meteorological stations
in rural and urban areas as well as across urban areas reveal that in most cases,
significant variability exists in the microclimates observed. And that this variability

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MODERN INTEL MICROPROCESSORS

Author: 
Kiyawa, A.I., Usman, M.T. and Abdullahi, Z.H.

With so many desktop processors in the market today, the user is faced with the
challenge of choosing the processor which matches his requirements without the need to
spend a lot on unneeded capabilities. This paper aims at aiding buyers to make the right
choice in Intel desktop processors. It first presents some important features of the
processor for the user’s understanding. Using backward market research method,
secondary data was obtained from Intel’s official website. With this data, analysis of the

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CLASSIFYING URBAN CLIMATE FIELD SITES BY LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES OF KADUNA METROPOLIS NIGERIA

Author: 
S .U .Usmanb,I.A. Abdulhameda ,M.Ibrahima,E. O .Iguisib, I.M.Azarea and O. F .Atic

This study assessed the local climate zones (LCZ) in Kaduna metropolis. It involved the
categorization of the land use land cover using local climate zone scheme, as well as the
determination of the canyon geometry of the study sites within the study area. 19 study
sites were selected within and outside the metropolis Deploying meteorological stations
in rural and urban areas as well as across urban areas reveal that in most cases,
significant variability exists in the microclimates observed. And that this variability

ASSESEMENT OF WERNER DECONVOLUTION METHOD IN THE ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL FAULT SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF THE KALANGAI FAULT SYSTEM NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Author: 
Abubakar Y.I., Dewu B.B.M. and Lawal K.M.

Werner deconvolution analysis of four ground and six aero magnetic profiles across the
Kalangai fault within the Kushaka schist belt northwestern Nigeria was carried out in
order to assess the usefulness of the method in analyzing profile magnetic data. The
length of the ground profiles varies from 4 Km to 8 Km, while that of the aeromagnetic
profiles from 40 Km to 80 Km. All the profiles were laid perpendicular to the strike
direction of the fault. The ground magnetic profile data were obtained using a Scintrex

ANALYSIS OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS AND MINERALS FOUND IN AQUEOUS STEM BARK EXTRACT OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK

Author: 
Labaran IbrahimLukman O. Afolabi Adam A. Adam Jamil D. Usman Umar Muhammad

The analysis of some phytochemicals and minerals were performed using aqueous stem
bark extract of Albizia lebbeck obtained from Gano town of Wudil Local Government
Area, Kano-Nigeria. The research work was undertaken to identify and quantify
phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, alkaloids; and minerals
such as magnesium, iron, calcium, zinc and potassium found in the aqueous stem bark
extract of the plant. The result of the phytochemical screening indicated that the stem

POST-HARVEST SPOILAGE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) GROWN AT KWAKWACHI IRRIGATION AREA OF KANO STATE, NIGERIA

Author: 
Yahaya, S. M. Fagwalawa, L. D. and Usman, A. A.

Studies on post-harvest fungi causing deterioration in cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
sampled from farmers at Kwakwachi irrigation area in Kano State was carried out
between September and December, 2014. The samples were surface sterilized using 3%
sodium hypochlorite solution and homogenates were cultured on potato Dextrose Agar
and incubated at 25.7 ±2oc for three days. Pure cultures of the resulting fungal colonies
were obtained from the subcultures of the primary plates. These were identified

A COMPETITIVE BUSINESS IS/IT STRATEGY: SURVEY ON ADAPTION OF IS/IT STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

Author: 
Salim Ahmad,Farouk Lawan Gambo, Haruna Musa,Isma’il Muhammad Musa, and Yusuf Magaji

Today, Information system technology transforms the way enterprises go about the
business processes. Large business enterprises have completely changed the way a
business is carried out. Large business enterprises adapt various ways in which IS/IT
strategy influences their business, which hinders effectiveness in their business like:
operational excellence, new products, services, and business models, customer and
supplier intimacy, improved decision making, competitive advantage and business

STUDIES OF ZOOPLANKTON COMPOSITION OF GADAR TAMBURAWA RIVER IN DAWAKIN KUDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT, KANO STATE NIGERIA

Author: 
RABIU ADAMU and AMINU AHMAD WUDIL

This study evaluated the Zooplankton Composition of Gadar Tamburawa river in Dawakin
Kudu Local Government, Kano State. Monthly variation and composition of zooplankton
parameters of the river were studied for a period of six months (July – December 2014).
Result showed monthly variations of means (lowest-highest) values ranges between
0.00±0.00 in December to 1.33±0.88 in August and September for Protozoa, 2.00±0.00 in
December to 8.33±3.84 in August for Rotifers, where Cladocera had 0.00±0.00 in July,

EFFECTS OF FUEL WOOD EXPLOITATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT: A CASE STUDY OF NASARAWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA.

Author: 
Umar Osu Ujih, Nura Sabiu, Dahiru Mohammed Musa and Isa Magaji Azare

The study aimed at examining the adverse effects of fuel wood exploitations on the
environment in Nasarawa Local Government Area, with objectives of identifying the
major source of domestic energy, examining the types of economic trees mostly
extracted, assessing the extent of devastation and its effects on the environment with a
viewing to ameliorating the deteriorations. To achieve the set objectives biophysical and
socio economic survey on households and fuel wood vendors was adopted to collect data

HARNESSING THE TOURISM POTENTIALS IN THE FCT, ABUJA AND NASARAWA STATE FOR EMPLOYMENT, HEALTH AND REVENUE GENERATION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Author: 
Umar Osu Ujih, and Imran Umar Ujih

This research is concerned with harnessing the tourism potentials in the FCT, Abuja and
Nasarawa State for employment, health and revenue generation for the sustainable
development. The broad objectives of the study are toidentify current tourist centres,
classify of potential tourist centres and recommend way forward to promoting tourism
development in Abuja FCT and Nasarawa State vis-à-vis their favourable climate and
tourist attractions. Tourism can be seen as temporary and short term movement of

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