EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF WATER MELON SEED (Citrullus lanatus) FOR POSSIBLE UTILIZATION IN FISH FEED FORMULATION

Abstract: 

This study examines the effect of heat treatment on the proximate composition of watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus) using varied period of time for toasting (0, 20, 40 and 60 mins) respectively at a constant temperature of 1200c. The proximate composition of the seed toasted for 0 min (raw) showed that the seed had moisture content of 11.40%, Crude protein content of 20.50%, Fat content of 16.60%, Ash content of 0.74%, and Total Carbohydrate of 51.96%. Seed toasted for 20min showed that the seed had

ISSN: 
2476-8316

FISH SMOKING EFFICIENCY OF TRADITIONAL SMOKING KILN (OPEN DRUM) AND FUTY IMPROVED PROCESSORS (OVEN

Abstract: 

The rate at which dryness occurred in fish varies considerably with these processors. Fish species preserved were Clarias, Heterobranchus, Synodontis, Tilapia and Hydrocynus species (whole, split and cut). Traditional Smoking kiln (open drum) and Federal University of Technology Yola (FUTY improved processors), were used. Firewood and sawdust were used as source of smoke and heat to the fish in an open drum processor and charcoal were used as source of heat to the fish in the FUTY improved processor (oven) at a time interval of two hours in three different occasions after which, weight loss was measured. Fish products appeared charred and burnt in an open drum kiln with a shorter shelf life due to excessive (uncontrolled) heat supply. In the ovens (FUTY Improved processor), the rate of dehydration was slow. However, fish products appeared golden brown making it attractive to the consumers. This was due to the even distribution of heat in the processor. Therefore, there is significance difference (p > 0.05) between traditional smoking kiln and FUTY improved processor (oven).

ISSN: 
2476-8316

Integrated Network Architecture for Seamless Heterogeneous Social Media Platforms

Abstract: 

Nowadays, one of the fastest ways of connecting people with old friends is through the social media network platforms (SMNPs) which have greatly influenced the way people communicate. This has continued to receive acceptance among all age groups and still growing, opening yet another area of research that explore large data of both social and behavioural context. The heterogeneity of these SMNPs has further brought innovations in developing applications for integrating resources in offering seamless services among the various SMNPs. The aim of this paper is to integrate data from social relationships by proposing a heterogeneous point-to-point architecture that seamlessly integrates various SMNPs. A Globally Integrated Relationship Linkage (GIRL) model is proposed in this architecture to test the strength of relationships existing between various SMNP users. The model lead to the development of a search mechanism (i-Navigate) for finding the optimal social linkage among users of same connection in heterogeneous SMNPs. The paper try to evaluate the performance of the mechanism and show its effectiveness in supporting different application metrics of integrated content-sharing which will make developers of SMNP design effective user-driven SMNP applications.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

SOIL EROSION HAZARD ASSESSMENT USING SLEMSA MODEL IN OUTSKETCH PARTS OF KANO METROPOLIS

Abstract: 

The study was carried out to assess soil erosion hazard in outsketch of Kano metropolis, which is located between Latitude 11o59' and 12 o 02' N, Longitude 8o33' and 8o40'E. The Soil Loss Estimation Model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA), developed for conditions in Zimbabwe, was evaluated and used to determine a soil erosion hazard in outsketch of Kano metropolis; parameters were assessed with a view to model soil loss in outsketch of Kano Nigeria. The computed mean values of soil loss inform of erosion hazard unit (Ehu) for the study area is 188.02(Ehu). These value varied between 106.85542 (Ehu) in Tsamiyar Matasa – Gunduwawa to 313.74376 (Ehu) for the North Eastern Bypass. The estimated erosion hazard unit was higher in Northern Eastern Bypass, followed by Rimin Kebe with 143.45634 (Ehu) while Tsamiyar Matasa records the least soil loss between the sites. K value is responsible for high soil loss in Northern Eastern Bypass and low in Tsamiyar Matasa, while in Rimin Kebe the combination of all factors are the yardstick for high soil loss in essence no single factor seemed more important than the other factors in affecting the estimate soil loss values. The SLEMSA sub-models of cover, soil loss, and topography were computed from energy interception, rainfall energy, and soil erodibility, and slope length and steepness, respectively. Sensitivity analyses of the SLEMSA model revealed that rainfall energy and slope steepness have the greatest influence for the occurrence of erosion in the study area. The effect of the sensitivity indices of the five parameters in this research is rated as E>F>S>L>i in accordance with their relative importance for the occurrence of erosion. It is recommended that deep rooted trees that could help considerably in the binding of soil colloids against detachment should be planted. However, SLEMSA does not estimate rill or gully erosion. Therefore another method should be used to capture the gully erosion hazards for this area.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

AN ASSESSMENT OF WIDOWHOOD AND ORPHANCY IN THE CONTEMPORARY HAUSA CULTURE IN KANO METROPOLIS, KANO NIGERIA

Abstract: 

This paper assesses the treatment of the family of deceases by the society and how it impacted on the wellbeing of the affected persons. It is a cross sectional survey research utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data through the identification of income, expenses, choices and decision in response to their predicaments. Structured interview and questionnaire are designed to capture the responses from widows, orphans and their neighbours/relative. Snowballing is adopted while sampling the respondents especially the people who are related to the orphans and widows. Simple descriptive statistics are used in describing the tally of some observed variables. Chi-square test was used to test the observed behaviors between widows and orphans. The findings revealed an amazing scenario where 80% of the widow lamented bitter experiences after the death of their husbands. Majority of the orphans suffers various problems in their upbringing including feeding and other necessities of life like clothes, shelter and schooling. Economic hardship, poverty and westernization change Hausa-polygamous culture which in turn made the widows at disadvantage of getting another husbands. The study discovered that female orphanage is more debilitating than their males’ counterpart. Majority are push into Hawking and other low-level livelihood options that affect their honour and decency at times injuring their health womanhood. The paper recommend with emphases that Government should revamp the welfare services to take care of widows and orphans through monthly allowances, free education and health care in order to protect and prevent them from evil-minds whom in the name of assisting, end of jeopardizing their future

ISSN: 
2476-8316

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