Cluster Based File System (A Review)

Abstract: 

With a growth in the size of internet users and other big-data-reliant applications, the need for fault tolerant file systems that can provide concurrent and redundant access to file is growing.The Access, location, concurrency and failure transparency provide by cluster based file systems has inspired many big data users like Google and Oracle to adopt cluster based file systems. The heterogeneity and transparency provided by such systems also dampens expansion and managerial costs,however the management of such systems is not tribal.
Cluster based file systems often require complex operations to ensure synchronicity and concurrency control within the cluster.The immense distributed management of cluster also creates a performance overhead especially when involving remote requests. cluster based systems are thus challenged to provide the seemingly redundant and resilient operation rooted in their architectures while not compromising on performance,security and other functionality metrics.Thus review will focus on the strategies adopted in the optional deployment of cluster based file systems and the schemes used in some of them to overcome some of the challenges faced by cluster based systems. The review will focus on file clustered file clustered file systems (Hadoop file systems, lustre, Gluster file systems,Caph, Moose file system and Quick file systems). These systems were selected based on their recentness. Additionally,servers like Hadoop are being used by industry leaders like Yahoo and Facebook and hence more prone to rigorous standardization.The survey will review them based on their Architectures, Naming method, Replication mechanism and fault management and detection mechanism.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

NATURE OF HYDROGEOLOGY, WATER SUPPLY AND THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF WATER IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN KANO, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

The study examined nature of hydrogeology and role of gender in water supply in parts of Kano Metropolis and its immediate surroundings. Five local government areas were randomly selected through balloting process from Urban and Peri-Urban Kano. In each of the selected local government areas two sampling site were selected. Data on number of bore holes, open wells, taps and other sources of water supply were collected through field observation. Responses on sources of water supply, water storage, water management, water usage, water supply and role of women, water and family size were collected through interview. Nature of hydrogeology was obtained through reclassifying hydrogeological map of the study areas in GIS environment. Water table was obtained through pumping test records of existing boreholes in the areas. Findings of the research shows that borehole is the major source of drinking water with a total of 83 (27.6%) followed by open well with 69 (23%) and Tap and well with least 4 (1.3%). It can be seen that Hotoron Masallaci with Dior Granite has the highest number of bore holes 18 and open well 7 and a water table of about 506 – 560m. Lambu has 15 boreholes and 7 wells and is with coarse pink and Black granite and water table of 456 – 507m. It can be observed that Rijiyar Lemo with 3 boreholes and 2 wells and Kurnar Asabe with 3 boreholes and 9 wells are all having Pink and white granites which signifies low ground water and high water table values of 666 – 717m. It is deduced that 92% of the respondents store their water in drums. It was established that there is significant differences with regards to water storage among the study locations. Result also shows that water management is mostly controlled by women. It shows that 92% uses water for cooking. It is proved that 57% of the respondents said water availability rest with women, 45% by men and 3% by children. It is established that groundwater availability is associated with nature of hydrogeology and this significantly affect role of women in water supply. It is recommended that Government and stakeholders should development of a well-designed project for integrated water supply in the areas of low water table.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

PERFORMANCE AND FAILURE OF SOLAR BOREHOLES FOR WATER SUPPLY IN KUMBOTSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KANO STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract: 

Assessment for the performance and failure of solar boreholes was undertaken in Kumbotso local government area of Kano state. This is in line with frequent failures of solar boreholes for effective water supply in the study area. Seven wards were selected for the study. Sample of 151 respondents were interviewed. Data was collected through field observation, use check list, interview and focus group discussion. The data was analyzed using simple statistics such as totals, means, standard deviation and percentages. Likert scale of measurement was also applied in analyzing the responses on performance, failure and level of utilization of boreholes. Student’s ‘t’ test was used to find out whether there is significant difference or not between functioning and nonfunctioning borehole in the study area. Chi-square test was also use in the analysis of problems and solutions. Result shows that there are 26 solar boreholes out of which 11 are functioning and 15 are not functioning it is established that there is significant difference among the eight study wards in terms of functioning and non-functioning solar boreholes at 0.05 level of significant. It indicates that 68 (46%) of the respondents said community members are the major stake holders. The result shows that most of the parameters are fairly satisfactory with means of 0.50 – 1.27. Result also shows that computed means of all the problems facing water supply trough solar boreholes are below the Likert scale of satisfaction of 2.80 – 3.42 and there is no significant association among the problems affecting solar boreholes performance for water supply in the study areas at 0.05 level of significant. Findings shows that provision of full security as a major solution to the problem of solar boreholes performance for water supply with 55 responses (36.45%). Result shows that there is no significant association among the major solutions to the problems. With particular reference to findings of the research it is recommended among other issues that adequate security should be provided to prevent solar panels, sumo and other important components from being stolen for effective performance and water supply.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

A REVIEW OF NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY-THEIR DISTRIBUTION, EFFECTS AND USAGE TO MAN

Abstract: 

Natural products are naturally occurring compounds that are end products of primary metabolites; often they are unique compounds for particular organisms. They are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. The most important of these phytochemicals (secondary metabolites) are alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavanoids, terpenoid and cardiac glycosides. Their important physiological effects on humans and other animals are reviewed.
Keywords: Natural products, uses, phytochemicals, man and chemistry.

ISSN: 
2476-8316

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